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Guys drinkingDrinking Facts

    Women and Alcohol

    Alcohol and Athletic Ability

    Unintentional Injury

    Date Rape


    Alcohol and Depression

    Alcohol and the Body

    Chronic Alcohol Use

    Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
  • Pregnant women who drink risk having babies with fetal alcohol syndrome.

  • Babies born with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome have: smaller heads and brains, some degree of mental retardation, poor coordination, hyperactivity and abnormal facial features.6

  • 10% of alcohol health care costs are for care of fetal alcohol syndrome.9

  • Adult Drinking Behaviors



    Alcohol and Advertising

    Youth and Drinking


    1Parks, K., et al. Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, 4/2004.
    3Ashley, O., Marsden, M.E., Brady, T. American Journal of Drug Abuse and Alcohol Abuse, "Effectiveness of substance abuse treatment programming for women: a review." 2/03. http://articles.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0978/is_1_29/ai_101175127
    4Middlebury College - Middlebury, Vermont, http://www.middlebury.edu/offices/healthed/
    5The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Addiction, Alcohol Alert, 58:1-4, 2002.
    6Massachusetts General Hospital Report, March 8, 2004.
    7National Crime Victimization Survey, as reported in U.S. Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. Alcohol and Crime, 1998.
    8The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 4/04.
    9Harvard University's College Health Behaviors Newsletter, 1(2), 4/04.
    10University's of Washington, Eric Chudler's Neuroscience for Kids, http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/alco.html
    11U.S. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data Reference Manual, Vol 6. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 1998.
    12Heath Behaviors of Adults: United States, 1999-2001. Series Report 10, Number 219.
    13Kinney, Jean & Leaton, Gwen. Loosing the Grip, Mosby-Year Book, Inc. New York, 1995.
    15Substance Abuse: The Nation's Number One Health Problem: Key Indicators for Policy, Update 02/2001. Prepared by the Scneider Institute for Health Policy, Brandeis University for the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, Princeton, New Jersey.
    16Institute of Medicine. Pathways of Addiction - Opportunities in Drug Abuse Research. Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1996.
    17U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Summary of Findings from the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD, 1999.
    18Johnston et al., Monitoring the Future National Survey Results on Drug Use, 1975-2000. Volume 1: Secondary School Students. NIH Publication No. 01-4924. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2001.
    19High Risk Drinking in College: What We Know and What We Need to Learn Final Report on the Panel on Contexts and Consequences. Task Force on the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. NIH. 4/02. www.collegedrinkingprevention.gov
    20U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2010, conference edition, Vol. II, Washington, DC: USDHHS, 2000.
    21Knight, et al. Alcohol abuse and dependence among U.S. college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 2002, in press.
    22Sher et al. Short-and long-term effects of fraternity and sorority membership on heavy drinking: A social norms perspective. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors 15(1): 42-51, 2001.
    23U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. Summary of Findings from the 1998 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse. Rockville, MD, 1999. Table 57.
    24Stingson FS, Nephew TM. "State Trends in Alcohol-Related Mortality, 1979-92."
    25Federation of Tax Administrators. State Tax Rates and Structure: State Beer Excise Tax Rates, January 1, 2000. www.taxadmin.org/fta/rate/beer.html
    26Monitoring the Future. National Results on Adolescent Drug Abuse: Overview of Key Findings 2003. National Institute on Drug Abuse. http://www.monitoringthefuture.org/pubs/monographs/overview2003.pdf
    27Nicholls, P.; Edwards, G.; and Kyle, E. Alcoholics admitted to four hospitals in England: General and cause-specific mortality. Quarterly Journal of Studies on Alcohol 35(3):841-855, 1974.
    28Saunders, J.B.; Davis, M.; and Williams, R. Do women develop alcoholic liver disease more readily than men? British Medical Journal 282:1140-1143, 1981. Tuyns, A.J., & Pequignot, G. Greater risk of ascitic cirrhosis in females in relation to alcohol consumption. International Journal of Epidemiology 13(1):53-57, 1984.

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